Let’s say a detective wants to determine who killed John. He will follow clues and investigate evidence while considering the strengths and shortcomings in each piece of evidence.
For example, a witness saying they saw someone that sort of looked like Count Jackington’s butler is much weaker evidence than a security camera capturing an image of the butler. It’s good to take a similar approach when trying to make conclusions from research. Last year, I picked up this book with the title “The Best Diet: Simple and Evidence based guide to healthy eating” written by a doctor Tsugawa at UCLA. I saw this book around when I was making a video on Butter Coffee and the cover of this book has a big red X next to the word “Butter Coffee” so I picked it up to make sure I wouldn’t have to delete my video. On page 31 that it says “Butter is a bad fat as shown by several studies.”
Now, the first, most obvious step to evaluate a claim is to investigate the evidence the claim is based on. There’s a reference number next to this sentence about butter, so I go to reference (4) in the very back of the book and it has a footnote saying “The idea that butter is bad comes from observational studies in which butter seems to raise the “bad” LDL cholesterol. However, the evidence that butter intake affects your risk for disease is not particularly strong.” This footnote goes on to point out that a 2016 paper did not show an association between butter, heart attack and stroke. This book also brings up a very often debated topic: Eggs. Eggs, especially the yolk, can be a cheap source of good nutrients like fat soluble vitamins which aren’t contained in the majority of typically eaten foods. However, the book recommends limiting your egg intake to only one a day. If only this book came out earlier, then this poor 88 year old man could have been warned. He ate 20 to 30 eggs a day for 15 years as of 1991.
Interestingly, he maintained normal plasma cholesterol despite the ludicrous amount of dietary cholesterol he consumed- we’ll talk about how this affected him in a moment and We’ll come back to why it’s being said to eat only one egg a day, but before we do that, allow me to explain a couple concepts. The first is that of confounding variables: Here we have the grabbing headline “High-Fat Diet Linked to Anxiety, Depression.” If we take a look at the study they’re basing the article on, we see that the high-fat diet they used – D12451 from Research Diets Inc. , contains 20% protein, 45% fat and 35% carbohydrate – this is relatively high fat. However, half of the carbohydrate is refined table sugar… by weight there’s almost as much pure sugar as there is fat. So, Do think this might confound the effect of fat?
Now, Biology is incredibly complicated – there are so many variables that may affect a given output. So, a common challenge is isolating the effect of one food or gene on disease risk from the effects of all the other foods and genes that could also potentially increase that disease risk. I had a chat about the various challenges in scientific research with Eli Lyons,the CEO of the synthetic biology company Tupac Bio. In his current position, and as a PhD candidate at the University of Tokyo, Eli has a decade of experience regularly reading through research papers. Afterwards I followed up on Skype to ask him about the challenge isolating variables. “In some of my work, I’ve done statistical analysis on oncogenes or high throughput mutagenesis. Oncogenes are cancer causing genes, or, genes that when mutated may drive cancer.
And, what commonly occurs though is that in a tumor, for example, you may have many genes that are mutated. However, not all of the mutated genes are actually driving the cancer.
So, those that area unit driving it area unit known as driver cancer genes. And, therefore however does one isolate the consequences or confirm that genes area unit the driving force cancer genes and that area unit like carrier mutations. It’s additionally additional complicated as a result of there is also some interactions between the driving force cancer genes and a few genes that area unit mutated and therefore the interactions area unit terribly complicated, but the impact is also for the most part due, the bulk of the impact is also because of the driving force genes for example. And so, really, it’s analytic however massive of an impression or, what quantity of the cancer is due to factor A – a mutation in factor A, and the way abundant of the cancer is because of a mutation in factor B for instance.” (2)This brings U.S.A.
to my next purpose, the importance of context: A good example for why it’s laborious to isolate things from context is macromolecule. There looks to be some concern regarding macromolecule for folks on an occasional carb diet.
One of the goals of doing an occasional carb diet is keeping your hypoglycemic agent low, and to realize that people replace the carbs with fat or macromolecule, however macromolecule ironically looks to boost insulin levels. However, will the context matter? Does macromolecule by itself faithfully raise hypoglycemic agent levels? If we tend to take a glance at this study in canines as conferred by Dr. Benjamin Bikman, we see that dogs receiving associate degree infusion of aldohexose get spikes in their hypoglycemic agent levels once given the aminoalkanoic acid amino acid. So, it’s like macromolecule will raise hypoglycemic agent.
But what regarding dogs while not the aldohexose infusion? The dogs not receiving aldohexose didn’t see their hypoglycemic agent modification to any noticeable degree. So then, imagine however this truth would confuse the info sure example a study gazing how macromolecule affects risk for polygenic disease, associate degree hypoglycemic agent driven unwellness.
You might cross-check what number servings of meat folks area unit having per day then cross-check who develops polygenic disease, however the physiological effects of a hamburger patty tucked in a very whole wheat breadstuff and served with fries area unit about to be abundant completely different from a cut served only with butter and rosemary. Another example of the importance of context comes from the work of Dave Feldman. Dave is associate degree freelance macromolecule investigator WHO has developed one thing known as the macromolecule Energy Model.
He’s really been interviewed on this channel before. We all recognize that we tend to area unit presupposed to keep our LDL dangerous sterol as low as potential to prevent heart condition. However, in our interview, Dave explained the logic behind why once it involves heart disease, LDL – the therefore known as dangerous sterol isn’t all that necessary within the context of high HDL and low triglycerides. That is, you don’t have to be compelled to worry all that abundant regarding sky high dangerous sterol .
This vast NHANES knowledge set that Dave recently got his hands on is showing that this concept that HDL and triglycerides area unit additional necessary than LDL cholesterol so pans out astonishingly well. I went ahead and separated out everyone with HDL cholesterol of forty nine or lower. And then finally, I took out everyone on top of 100mg/dL of triglycerides. This was pretty exciting as a result of currently I may really cross-check what the mortality knowledge was that was left. And that mortality was pretty exciting as a result of not solely did they need associate degree all cause mortality that was less than the typical, but, believe it or not, diseases of the center were very low. The youngest person in this cluster that was left over, once all 3 of those markers were accounted for, was 68. The oldest within the group? 94. And outside of these 2, everyone else died in their 80’s.
A total of eighteen total deaths from diseases of the center, and virtually everybody died of previous age.” So, let’s return thereto earlier purpose regarding the advice to eat just one egg a day. The author of the sooner mentioned book explains that, in line with a 2013 meta analysis, those who Ate quite one egg every day had a forty second higher risk for developing kind a pair of polygenic disease than people who hardly Ate eggs. What a meta analysis will is pile the info from multiple studies along to undertake and make additional correct conclusions.